By Phillip Harding
During the heady, democratic days of the 5th and fourth centuries, the poorer individuals of Athenian society, the decrease periods of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an remarkable dominance in either family and international politics. At domestic, the participatory nature of the structure required their presence not just within the lawcourts and meeting, but additionally in many of the minor magistracies; overseas, they have been the motive force of the army, which ensured Athens’ keep watch over of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation in any respect degrees used to be made attainable via nation pay (for jury accountability, attendance within the meeting, public place of work and army service). within the 5th century nation pay used to be financed principally in the course of the tribute paid by means of participants of the empire, supplemented by means of the liturgical contributions of the wealthy and, starting in the course of the battle, a estate tax (the eisphora). within the fourth century, virtually the full burden was once shouldered through taxation upon the rich, specifically those that owned estate.
In this e-book, writer Phillip Harding lines the main alterations that happened within the management of the nation that at last disadvantaged the reduce periods in their supremacy and transferred strength into the fingers of the rich land-owners. issues replaced considerably after Athens’ defeat within the Lamian (or Hellenic) struggle in 322BC. Over the following a number of a long time, restrict of the franchise, removing of pay for a few public workplaces, the lack of the military, the elevated dependence upon neighborhood grain from the bigger estates in Attika, the elimination of the tax burden from the wealthy by way of the finishing of such significant liturgies because the trierarchia and the choregia and the forsaking of the eisphora all contributed to this variation.
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Additional info for Athens Transformed, 404–262 BC: From Popular Sovereignty to the Dominion of Wealth (Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies)
Athens Transformed, 404–262 BC: From Popular Sovereignty to the Dominion of Wealth (Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies) by Phillip Harding